Over the last four parts of this series, we’ve discussed how we can write server-side code for Cosmos DB, and the types of situations where it makes sense to do so. If you’re building a small sample application, you now have enough knowledge to go and build out UDFs, stored procedures, and triggers. But if you’re writing production-grade applications, there are two other major topics that need discussion: how to unit test your server-side code, and how to build and deploy it to Cosmos DB in an automated and predictable manner. In this part, we’ll discuss testing. In the next part, we’ll discuss build and deployment.

This post is part of a series:

  • Part 1 gives an overview of the server side programmability model, the reasons why you might want to consider server-side code in Cosmos DB, and some key things to watch out for.
  • Part 2 deals with user-defined functions, the simplest type of server-side programming, which allow for adding simple computation to queries.
  • Part 3 talks about stored procedures. These provide a lot of powerful features for creating, modifying, deleting, and querying across documents – including in a transactional way.
  • Part 4 introduces triggers. Triggers come in two types – pre-triggers and post-triggers – and allow for behaviour like validating and modifying documents as they are inserted or updated, and creating secondary effects as a result of changes to documents in a collection.
  • Part 5 (this post) discusses unit testing your server-side scripts. Unit testing is a key part of building a production-grade application, and even though some of your code runs inside Cosmos DB, your business logic can still be tested.
  • Finally, part 6 explains how server-side scripts can be built and deployed into a Cosmos DB collection within an automated build and release pipeline, using Microsoft Visual Studio Team Services (VSTS).

Unit Testing Cosmos DB Server-Side Code

Testing JavaScript code can be complex, and there are many different ways to do it and different tools that can be used. In this post I will outline one possible approach for unit testing. There are other ways that we could also test our Cosmos DB server-side code, and your situation may be a bit different to the one I describe here. Some developers and teams place different priorities on some of the aspects of testing, so this isn’t a ‘one size fits all’ approach. In this post, the testing approach we will build out allows for:

  • Mocks: mocking allows us to pass in mocked versions of our dependencies so that we can test how our code behaves independently of a working external system. In the case of Cosmos DB, this is very important: the getContext() method, which we’ve looked at throughout this series, provides us with access to objects that represent the request, response, and collection. Our code needs to be tested without actually running inside Cosmos DB, so we mock out the objects it sends us.
  • Spies: spies are often a special type of mock. They allow us to inspect the calls that have been made to the object to ensure that we are triggering the methods and side-effects that we expect.
  • Type safety: as in the rest of this series, it’s important to use strongly typed objects where possible so that we get the full benefit of the TypeScript compiler’s type system.
  • Working within the allowed subset of JavaScript: although Cosmos DB server-side code is built using the JavaScript language, it doesn’t provide all of the features of JavaScript. This is particularly important when testing our code, because many test libraries make assumptions about how the code will be run and the level of JavaScript support that will be available. We need to work within the subset of JavaScript that Cosmos DB supports.

I will assume some familiarity with these concepts, but even if they’re new to you, you should be able to follow along. Also, please note that this series only deals with unit testing. Integration testing your server-side code is another topic, although it should be relatively straightforward to write integration tests against a Cosmos DB server-side script.

Challenges of Testing Cosmos DB Server-Side Code

Cosmos DB ultimately executes JavaScript code, and so we will use JavaScript testing frameworks to write and run our unit tests. Many of the popular JavaScript and TypeScript testing frameworks and helpers are designed specifically for developers who write browser-based JavaScript or Node.js applications. Cosmos DB has some properties that can make these frameworks difficult to work with.

Specifically, Cosmos DB doesn’t support modules. Modules in JavaScript allow for individual JavaScript files to expose a public interface to other blocks of code in different files. When I was preparing for this blog post I spent a lot of time trying to figure out a way to handle the myriad testing and mocking frameworks that assume modules are able to be used in our code. Ultimately I came to the conclusion that it doesn’t really matter if we use modules inside our TypeScript files as long as the module code doesn’t make it into our release JavaScript files. This means that we’ll have to build our code twice – once for testing (which include the module information we need), and again for release (which doesn’t include modules). This isn’t uncommon – many development environments have separate ‘Debug’ and ‘Release’ build configurations, for example – and we can use some tricks to achieve our goals while still getting the benefit of a good design-time experience.

Defining Our Tests

We’ll be working with the stored procedure that we built out in part 3 of this series. The same concepts could be applied to unit testing triggers, and also to user-defined functions (UDFs) – and UDFs are generally easier to test as they don’t have any context variables to mock out.

Looking back at the stored procedure, the purpose is to do return the list of customers who have ordered any of specified list of product IDs, grouped by product ID, and so an initial set of test cases might be as follows:

  1. If the productIds parameter is empty, the method should return an empty array.
  2. If the productIds parameter contains one item, it should execute a query against the collection containing the item’s identifier as a parameter.
  3. If the productIds parameter contains one item, the method should return a single CustomersGroupedByProduct object in the output array, which should contain the productId that was passed in, and whatever customerIds the mocked collection query returned.
  4. If the method is called with a valid productIds array, and the queryDocuments method on the collection returns false, an error should be returned by the function.

You might have others you want to focus on, and you may want to split some of these out – but for now we’ll work with these so we can see how things work. Also, in this post I’ll assume that you’ve got a copy of the stored procedure from part 3 ready to go – if you haven’t, you can download it from the GitHub repository for that part.

If you want to see the finished version of the whole project, including the tests, you can access it on GitHub here.

Setting up TypeScript Configurations

The first change we’ll need to make is to change our TypeScript configuration around a bit. Currently we only have one tsconfig.json file that we use to build. Now we’ll need to add a second file. The two files will be used for different situations:

  • tsconfig.json will be the one we use for local builds, and for running unit tests.
  • tsconfig.build.json will be the one we use for creating release builds.

First, open up the tsconfig.json file that we already have in the repository. We need to change it to the following:

The key changes we’re making are:

  • We’re now including files from the spec folder in our build. This folder will contain the tests that we’ll be writing shortly.
  • We’ve added the line "module": "commonjs". This tells TypeScript that we want to compile our code with module support. Again, this tsconfig.json will only be used when we run our builds locally or for running tests, so we’ll later make sure that the module-related code doesn’t make its way into our release builds.
  • We’ve changed from using outFile to outDir, and set the output directory to output/test. When we use modules like we’re doing here, we can’t use the outFile setting to combine our files together, but this won’t matter for our local builds and for testing. We also put the output files into a test subfolder of the output folder so that we keep things organised.

Now we need to create a tsconfig.build.json file with the following contents:

This looks more like the original tsconfig.json file we had, but there are a few minor differences:

  • The include element now looks for files matching the pattern *.ready.ts. We’ll look at what this means later.
  • The module setting is explicitly set to none. As we’ll see later, this isn’t sufficient to get everything we need, but it’s good to be explicit here for clarity.
  • The outFile setting – which we can use here because module is set to none – is going to emit a JavaScript file within the build subfolder of the output folder.

Now let’s add the testing framework.

Adding a Testing Framework

In this post we’ll use Jasmine, a testing framework for JavaScript. We can import it using NPM. Open up the package.json file and replace it with this:

There are a few changes to our previous version:

  • We’ve now imported the jasmine module, as well as the Jasmine type definitions, into our project; and we’ve imported moq.ts, a mocking library, which we’ll discuss below.
  • We’ve also added a new test script, which will run a build and then execute Jasmine, passing in a configuration file that we will create shortly.

Run npm install from a command line/terminal to restore the packages, and then create a new file named jasmine.json with the following contents:

We’ll understand a little more about this file as we go on, but for now, we just need to understand that this file defines the Jasmine specification files that we’ll be testing against. Now let’s add our Jasmine test specification so we can see this in action.

Starting Our Test Specification

Let’s start by writing a simple test. Create a folder named spec, and within it, create a file named getGroupedOrdersImpl.spec.ts. Add the following code to it:

This code does the following:

  • It sets up a new Jasmine spec named getGroupedOrdersImpl. This is the name of the method we’re testing for clarity, but it doesn’t need to match – you could name the spec whatever you want.
  • Within that spec, we have a test case named should return an empty array.
  • That test executes the getGroupedOrdersImpl function, passing in an empty array, and a null object to represent the Collection.
  • Then the test confirms that the result of that function call is an empty array.

This is a fairly simple test – we’ll see a slightly more complex one in a moment. For now, though, let’s get this running.

There’s one step we need to do before we can execute our test. If we tried to run it now, Jasmine would complain that it can’t find the getGroupedOrdersImpl method. This is because of the way that JavaScript modules work. Our code needs to export its externally accessible methods so that the Jasmine test can see it. Normally, exporting a module from a Cosmos DB JavaScript file will mean that Cosmos DB doesn’t accept the file anymore – we’ll see a solution to that shortly.

Open up the src/getGroupedOrders.ts file, and add the following at the very bottom of the file:

The export statement sets up the necessary TypeScript compilation instruction to allow our Jasmine test spec to reach this method.

Now let’s run our test. Execute npm run test, which will compile our stored procedure (including the export), compile the test file, and then execute Jasmine. You should see that Jasmine executes the test and shows 1 spec, 0 failures, indicating that our test successfully ran and passed. Now let’s add some more sophisticated tests.

Adding Tests with Mocks and Spies

When we’re testing code that interacts with external services, we often will want to use mock objects to represent those external dependencies. Most mocking frameworks allow us to specify the behaviour of those mocks, so we can simulate various conditions and types of responses from the external system. Additionally, we can use spies to observe how our code calls the external system.

Jasmine provides a built-in mocking framework, including spy support. However, the Jasmine mocks don’t support TypeScript types, and so we lose the benefit of type safety. In my opinion this is an important downside, and so instead we will use the moq.ts mocking framework. You’ll see we have already installed it in the package.json.

Since we’ve already got it available to us, we need to add this line to the top of our spec/getGroupedOrders.spec.ts file:

This tells TypeScript to import the relevant mocking types from the moq.ts module. Now we can use the mocks in our tests.

Let’s set up another test, in the same file, as follows:

This test does a little more than the last one:

  • It sets up a mock of the ICollection interface.
  • This mock will send back a hard-coded string (self-link) when the getSelfLink() method is called.
  • It also provides mock behaviour for the queryDocuments method. When the method is called, it invokes the callback function, passing back a list of documents with a single empty string, and then returns true to indicate that the query was accepted.
  • The mock.object() method is used to convert the mock into an instance that can be provided to the getGroupedOrderImpl function, which then uses that in place of the real Cosmos DB collection. This means we can test out how our code will behave, and we can emulate the behaviour of Cosmos DB as we wish.
  • Finally, we call mock.verify to ensure that the getGroupedOrdersImpl function executed the queryDocuments method on the mock collection exactly once.

You can run npm run test again now, and verify that it shows 2 specs, 0 failures, indicating that our new test has successfully passed.

Now let’s fill out the rest of the spec file – here’s the complete file with all of our test cases included:

You can execute the tests again by calling npm run test. Try tweaking the tests so that they fail, then re-run them and see what happens.

Building and Running

All of the work we’ve just done means that we can run our tests. However, if we try to build our code to submit to Cosmos DB, it won’t work anymore. This is because the export statement we added to make our tests work will emit code that Cosmos DB’s JavaScript engine doesn’t understand.

We can remove this code at build time by using a preprocessor. This will remove the export statement – or anything else we want to take out – from the TypeScript file. The resulting cleaned file is the one that then gets sent to the TypeScript compiler, and it emits a Cosmos DB-friendly JavaScript file.

To achieve this, we need to chain together a few pieces. First, let’s open up the src/getGroupedOrders.ts file. Replace the line that says export { getGroupedOrdersImpl } with this section:

The extra lines we’ve added are preprocessor directives. TypeScript itself doesn’t understand these directives, so we need to use an NPM package to do this. The one I’ve used here is jspreproc. It will look through the file and handle the directives it finds in specially formatted comments, and then emits the resulting cleaned file. Unfortunately, the preprocessor only works on a single file at a time. This is OK for our situation, as we have all of our stored procedure code in one file, but we might not do that for every situation. Therefore, I have also used the foreach-cli NOM package to search for all of the *.ts files within our src folder and process them. It saves the cleaner files with a .ready.ts extension, which our tsconfig.build.json file refers to.

Open the package.json file and replace it with the following contents:

Now we can run npm install to install all of the packages we’re using. You can then run npm run test to run the Jasmine tests, and npm run build to build the releasable JavaScript file. This is emitted into the output/build/sp-getGroupedOrders.js file, and if you inspect that file, you’ll see it doesn’t have any trace of module exports. It looks just like it did back in part 3, which means we can send it to Cosmos DB without any trouble.

Summary

In this post, we’ve built out the necessary infrastructure to test our Cosmos DB server-side code. We’ve used Jasmine to run our tests, and moq.ts to mock out the Cosmos DB server objects in a type-safe manner. We also adjusted our build script so that we can compile a clean copy of our stored procedure (or trigger, or UDF) while keeping the necessary export statements to enable our tests to work. In the final post of this series, we’ll look at how we can automate the build and deployment of our server-side code using VSTS, and integrate it into a continuous integration and continuous deployment pipeline.

Key Takeaways

  • It’s important to test Cosmos DB server-side code. Stored procedures, triggers, and UDFs contain business logic and should be treated as a fully fledged part of our application code, with the same quality criteria we would apply to other types of source code.
  • Because Cosmos DB server-side code is written in JavaScript, it is testable using JavaScript and TypeScript testing frameworks and libraries. However, the lack of support for modules means that we have to be careful in how we use these since they may emit release code that Cosmos DB won’t accept.
  • We can use Jasmine for testing. Jasmine also has a mocking framework, but it is not strongly typed.
  • We can get strong typing using a TypeScript mocking library like moq.ts.
  • By structuring our code correctly – using a single entry-point function, which calls out to getContext() and then sends the necessary objects into a function that implements our actual logic – we can easily mock and spy on our calls to the Cosmos DB server-side libraries.
  • We need to export the functions we are testing using the export statement. This makes them available to the Jasmine test spec.
  • However, these export statements need to be removed before we can compile our release version. We can use a preprocessor to remove those statements.
  • You can view the code for this post on GitHub.
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Azure Platform, Testing, Uncategorized
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Join the conversation! 5 Comments

  1. […] Part 5 discusses unit testing your server-side scripts. Unit testing is a key part of building a production-grade application, and even though some of your code runs inside Cosmos DB, your business logic can still be tested. […]

    Reply
  2. […] Part 5 discusses unit testing your server-side scripts. Unit testing is a key part of building a production-grade application, and even though some of your code runs inside Cosmos DB, your business logic can still be tested. […]

    Reply
  3. […] Part 5 discusses unit testing your server-side scripts. Unit testing is a key part of building a production-grade application, and even though some of your code runs inside Cosmos DB, your business logic can still be tested. […]

    Reply
  4. […] Part 5 discusses unit testing your server-side scripts. Unit testing is a key part of building a production-grade application, and even though some of your code runs inside Cosmos DB, your business logic can still be tested. […]

    Reply
  5. […] Part 5 discusses unit testing your server-side scripts. Unit testing is a key part of building a production-grade application, and even though some of your code runs inside Cosmos DB, your business logic can still be tested. […]

    Reply

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